Understanding Molar Pregnancy: A Type of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

No matter if it happens at an early age or at a later age, pregnancy is always incredibly difficult to deal with. Initially, pregnancy happens after an egg is fertilized and gets into the womb, but sometimes these delicate beginning stages get mixed up and result in something that happens to 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. One such condition is a molar pregnancy. According to a trained obstetrician and gynaecologist in Dubai, Dr. Elsa, a molar pregnancy, also known as a hydatidiform mole, is a rare condition that occurs when the tissue that normally becomes a fetus develops into an abnormal growth. 

The growth of a molar pregnancy looks like tiny, water-filled sacs, similar to a cluster of grapes. It is known as a "mole" that does not support a developing embryo and leads to various complications for the mother, including the risk of cancer and miscarriage. To understand the situation better, in this blog post, we will discuss the types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of molar pregnancy.

What are the types of molar pregnancies? 

In general, molar pregnancies fall into two types: 

  1. Complete molar pregnancy: A complete molar pregnancy occurs when a sperm fertilizes an empty egg and no embryo is formed.

  2. Partial molar pregnancy: A partial molar pregnancy occurs when an abnormal placenta is formed with an embryo and two sperm that fertilize the egg. 

What are the main causes of molar pregnancies? 

The exact cause of molar pregnancy is not known, which is why top gynaecologists in Dubai say women cannot control whether or not they have a molar pregnancy. It is not caused by anything that you did; instead, it is believed to be caused by a problem with the genetic material of the egg or sperm. As women carry hundreds of eggs in their bodies, not all of which get formed correctly, they are usually absorbed by the body. But once in a while, an empty egg gets fertilized by a sperm with genes from the father but none from the mother, which leads to a molar pregnancy. 

Risk factors 

Even though molar pregnancies are rare, they do happen to women who: 

1. Are younger than 20 

2. Are over the age of 35 

3. Have a history of molar pregnancy. 

4. Have had two or more miscarriages. 

What are the most common symptoms?

At first, a molar pregnancy feels just like a pregnancy; however, the symptoms differ from woman to woman. To some women, molar pregnancy exhibits symptoms, while to others there are no specific symptoms. In general, the symptoms of a molar pregnancy can vary depending on whether it is a complete or partial molar pregnancy, but the most common symptoms included in a molar pregnancy are:

  1. Anemia 

  2. High blood pressure 

  3. Vaginal bleeding 

  4. Nausea 

  5. Pelvic discomfort

  6. Pre-eclampsia

  7. Ovarian cysts

  8. Hyperthyroidism

Apart from the above-mentioned symptoms, as per a female gynecologist in Dubai, vaginal bleeding and nausea occur the most. 

What are the complications involved with a molar pregnancy? 

If left untreated, molar pregnancy can lead to serious complications. These complications can include:

  1. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN): GTN is a type of cancer that can develop in the cells left behind after a molar pregnancy. GTN is treatable with chemotherapy, but it can be life-threatening if left untreated.

  2. Uterine rupture: In rare cases, molar pregnancy can lead to uterine rupture, which is a life-threatening complication that requires immediate medical attention.

  3. Preeclampsia: Molar pregnancy can increase the risk of preeclampsia, which is a condition that causes high blood pressure and can be dangerous for both the mother and child. 

How can one diagnose a molar pregnancy? 

If a woman experiences any of the symptoms of molar pregnancy, she should see her doctor immediately. Molar pregnancy is typically diagnosed through an ultrasound scan, which can show the presence of grape-like clusters in the uterus. The doctor will perform a physical exam and may recommend a blood test to check for pregnancy hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). If the ultrasound shows an abnormal growth, a biopsy may be taken to confirm the diagnosis of molar pregnancy. The biopsy involves removing a small sample of abnormal tissue from the uterus and examining it under a microscope.

Treatment of Molar Pregnancy

The treatment for molar pregnancy usually involves removing the abnormal tissue from the uterus. This is typically done through a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C). During a D&C, the cervix is dilated, and the abnormal tissue is removed from the uterus with a curette, which is a surgical instrument.

After the D&C, the patient will need to be monitored closely for several months to make sure that all of the abnormal tissue has been removed. In some cases, chemotherapy may be necessary to treat any remaining abnormal cells.

When should I schedule an appointment with a women's obstetrics and gynecology specialist?

In conclusion, a molar pregnancy is a rare condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It occurs when there is an abnormal growth of cells in the uterus, which can lead to the development of a tumor. So, if you are someone who is experiencing vaginal bleeding, nausea, or passing cysts from their vagina, then immediately schedule an appointment with the doctor

While molar pregnancy can be a difficult and frightening experience, most women who undergo treatment make a full recovery. However, it is important to closely monitor patients for potential complications, such as the development of gestational trophoblastic disease or the recurrence of molar pregnancy in future pregnancies. Overall, early detection and prompt treatment are keys to ensuring the best possible outcome for women with molar pregnancies. It is important to seek medical attention from New Concept Clinic, a pregnancy care clinic in Dubai, if you experience any concerning symptoms during pregnancy, and to stay informed about the risk factors and treatment options for this condition.